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International Literature Review – Management of Concrete and Bottom Ash, Slag and Boiler Dust Waste Streams


Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)




September 2019 – January 2020

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Project Overview

This report used a case study approach to investigate how six EU Member States have transposed three key elements of the Waste Framework Directive (WFD) into national law. A particular focus of this report was upon Articles 5 and 6 of the WFD. These relate to the distinctions set by EU law between:

  1. What is defined as “waste” and what is a by-product (Article 5)
  2. When something that was previously a waste has been sufficiently processed to re-join the commercial cycle, having attained so-called “end-of-waste” status (Article 6)

Both of these elements of the WFD have been transposed into Irish national law by the European Communities (Waste Directive) Regulations 2011[1], being contained in, respectively, its Articles 27 and 28. Besides Article 5 and 6 of the WFD, a further focus of this report, in the context of the WFD, was upon Article 24. This provision allows Member States to exercise discretion in establishing a lower – and lesser – tier of regulation that is rather less onerous than the general need for all waste management facilities to be subject to a formal permit. Instead, the operators of many less environmentally consequential waste recovery facilities can simply register their existence with a regulatory body.

The following materials were considered in the context of the above-mentioned EU countries:

  • Concrete covered broadly by construction demolition waste (CDW)
  • Bottom ash, slag and boiler dust

[1] SI 126 of 2011 (as amended)


Primary Services

  • Advisory consultancy in relation to the Waste Framework Directive
  • Resource management

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